The rich and often tragic history of Black and Latino Americans has long been ignored.
In Black Chronicle and La Cronica historians and educators use a newspaper format to tell of their contributions and struggles.

Clash of Cultures; Juan Cortina's Raid; Southwest Heritage 
1859, Issue 3

Although the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848 promised Mexicans living in New Mexico and California equal rights under the U.S. Constitution in the 1850s, the new U.S. citizens of Mexican descent faced racism and oppression. In California and Texas, especially, legal and illegal means were used to disenfranchise and disinherit them. In California, the once rich and powerful rancheros were required to undertake expensive litigation to confirm title for their own land. In the California gold mines, Mexicans were the victims of discrimination under the Foreign Miners Tax of 1850. In Texas, many Texas Mexican landowners were terrorized by unscrupulous men who took possession of their land when they fled. It was to punish these men that the respected landowner Juan N. Cortina led a violent raid on Brownsville.

Topics in this issue:
  • Rights under Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty
  • Juan Seguin Returns
  • Gold discovered in West
  • Indian nations
  • Mexican rights under treaty
  • Santa Fe Expedition
  • California battles
  • New Mexico Revolt

La Cronica

Issue 3