The rich and often tragic history of Black and Latino Americans has long been ignored.
In Black Chronicle and La Cronica historians and educators use a newspaper format to tell of their contributions and struggles.

California Missions; New Mexico Society; Contacts with North America
1835, Issue 1

In 1821, Mexico had won her independence from Spain. By 1835, the country’s Northern Territories included what is now California, New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. Land grants had promoted settlements, especially in California and New Mexico. California’s 21 missions had been established by the Franciscans to bring Christianity to the Indians. In this issue’s lead story, the Mexican government, under pressure from landowners, converted the California missions into Pueblos, or towns, leasing, selling or granting most of the vast mission lands to the wealthy ranchers. Because Mexico had adopted a policy of free trade after breaking away from Spain, United States merchants began bringing trade goods by ship to California and overland to New Mexico. In Texas, immigrant settlers from the United States were at first welcomed by the Mexican government. Mexico’s openness to free trade and immigration coincided with U.S. expansion across the North American continent.

Topics in this issue
  • California missions secularized
  • California & New Mexico land grants
  • Early New Mexico craftsmen
  • New Mexico Penitentes
  • Schools in early Texas
  • American traders in Mexico
  • Grito de Dolores
  • Sam Austin in prison
La Cronica

- 1835, Issue 1 -