The rich and often tragic history of Black and Latino Americans has long been ignored.
In Black Chronicle and La Cronica historians and educators use a newspaper format to tell of their contributions and struggles.

Reconstruction vs. Black Codes, Fifteenth Amendment 
1870, Issue 7

After the Civil War, the rebuilding of the country began in chaos and confusion. Reconstruction brought many advances, including the Freedman’s Bureau, established to educate former slaves, but the “Black Codes” were enacted in many southern states to strictly control them. Two major questions were the status of the defeated Southern states and the place of the freed Negro in American life. The North wanted progress and freedom, the development of industry and trade, and a strong central government. The South remained committed to a rural and agricultural way of life, with local and state control. The 14th and 15th Amendments, as well as the first civil rights legislation, were enacted during this period, though it would be many years before their provisions began to be put into effect.

Topics in this Issue
  • 15th Amendment protects the black vote
  • Freedman’s Bureau
  • Black Codes and Radical Reconstruction
  • Ku Klux Klan
  • South Carolina politics in Reconstruction
  • Thaddeus Stevens
  • Negro Methodists form church

Black Chronicle

Issue 7

Reconstruction vs. Black Codes, Fifteenth Amendment